PHI 103 Complete Class Week 1 – 5 All Assignments and Discussion Questions – A+ Graded Course Material - Ashford

Week 1 DQ 1 Arguments and Their Components. 

Consider an argument you have recently had with a friend, family member, manager, co-worker, or someone else. Identify the topic of the argument and present that argument in premise-conclusion form, identifying both the premises and conclusion

Week 1 DQ 2 The Scope and Limits of Logic

Logic can do a great deal in helping us understand our arguments. Explain what advantages we obtain by studying logic in terms of improving our reasoning. Consider a debate over whether prayer should be allowed in public schools. Explain what logic can and cannot do. In other words, what kinds of questions and topics are not decided by logical analysis?

Week 1 Quiz

Which of these could be seen as a premise in an argument?

A valid deductive argument, the premises of which are accepted as true, shows

"You didn't like that book; so you probably don't like to read" is

In the statement, "You didn't like that restaurant; so you probably don't like to eat out," "you probably don't like to out" is the

If a reason that is not relevant to the conclusion is given,

Which of the following is most likely to be a conclusion?

Premises and conclusions have which of the following in common?

A five year old boy who refuses to listen to reasons for going to bed could be called

Reasons given to support a conclusion are called

An argument can have

Week 2 Assignment Pro-Choice

Final Paper Outline. Review the Final Paper instructions in Week 5 of the online course or in the “Components of Course Evaluation” section of this guide. Then, visit the Ashford Writing Center (located in the Learning Resources tab in the left navigation bar). The outline must contain:

a. Introduction with thesis statement

b. At least five body paragraphs, using the provided model

c. Conclusion

d. Reference page containing at least three academic resources, two of which are found in the Ashford Online Library. Each side of the debate should be provided at least one valid source for.

The Final Paper Outline must be three pages in length (excluding title and reference page) and in APA (6th edition) format. If you would like to refer to APA samples and tutorials, log into the Ashford Writing Center (located in the Learning Resources tab in the left navigation bar). Click on the “APA & Research Guides” tab and review the resources.

Week 2 DQ 1 Deductive Argument

Construct a deductive argument that is valid but not sound. Then, construct a valid deductive argument that is sound. Be sure to put the argument in premise-conclusion form.

Week 2 DQ 2 Inductive Language

Construct an inductive argument for a specific conclusion. Then, explain what you might do to make this inductive argument stronger, either by revising the premises or by revising the conclusion.

Week 2 Quiz

"10 is less than 100; 100 is less than 1,000; consequently, 10 is less than 1,000" is an example of a

One way to make an inductive argument stronger is to

All sound arguments are valid, but not all valid arguments are sound. This means

Inductive arguments should never be characterized as

Inductive arguments are evaluated in terms of

A valid argument is one that, if its premises are accepted as true, has

A "good" deductive argument must at least be

Assume you are given a sound argument. What do you know about it?

One way to make an inductive argument stronger is to

In logic, arguments are never described as

Week 3 Assignment Stereotype Paper

Read Stereotyping Has Lasting Negative Impact: Prejudice has lingering effects, study shows and watch How Pre-existing Beliefs Distort Logical Reasoning.

Discuss three stereotypes you encounter in your own life and the effect those stereotypes can have on others. This can be a stereotype you realize you have been guilty of holding or someone else's. Explain (a) what the stereotype is and (b) what sort of argument, no matter how flawed, might be used to support it, and (c) identify any mistakes you find in that argument.

The paper must be three pages in length (excluding title and reference page) and in APA (6th edition) format. You must use at least three resources, one of which must be the course text, and two resources must either be found in the Ashford Online Library or from the provided sources. If you would like to refer to APA samples and tutorials, log into the Ashford Writing Center (located in the Learning Resources tab in the left navigation bar). Click on the “APA & Research Guides” tab and review the resources.

Week 3 DQ 1 Fallacious Arguments

Considering the fallacies discussed in Chapter Four of An Introduction to Logic, construct three different arguments that display distinct fallacies. Give an explanation of why each makes a mistake in drawing the conclusion it does. Review your classmates’ examples and see if they, in fact, commit the fallacy identified.

Week 3 DQ 2 The Media and Fallacies

One rich source of fallacies is the media: television, radio, magazines, and the Internet (including, of course, commercials.) Identify two distinct fallacies you see committed in the media. Do you think it is more likely that you will not be fooled by these fallacies having studied logic? What do you think those presenting these arguments assume about the logical skills of their viewers? Is this a good or bad assumption for them to make?

Week 3 Quiz

"China uses too much oil. So they shouldn't develop their industry" may commit which fallacy?

"Julie started carrying a rabbit's foot, then she won the lottery. The rabbit's foot must have caused her to win the lottery" commits a(n)

A person who is shown his or her argument commits a fallacy should

A fallacy is an argument that

"If that wasn't illegal, then it wouldn't be against the law" may commit which fallacy?

"My husband snores. All men must snore" commits which of these fallacies.

After being told that she is being punished for lying, a child responds by telling her mother that she also lied. This response may involve which fallacy?

"You should read this book. Everybody likes it so it must be good" may commit which fallacy?

"I bought a pair of shoes from that store that immediately fell apart. Their shoes are no good" may commit which fallacy?

"The Senator wants to cut spending on police. I guess she doesn't care if we all get murdered" may commit which fallacy?

Week 4 DQ 1 Logic and Science

Provide a scientific hypothesis and explain how one might go about testing it, either by confirming the hypothesis or using Karl Popper's strategy of disconfirmation. Discuss which of these two strategies is better and why.

Week 4 DQ 2 Logic and Ethics

Mary is poor. She has not been able to find a job and has two children she needs to feed. Assume Mary is forced to let her children go hungry or steal some food from a local grocery store. Which should she do? Construct an argument that supports Mary's decision to steal the food or an argument that shows why Mary should not steal the food. Do not assume that Mary lives in a country that has social aid and help from other religious and secular organizations. She must either steal and feed her children or not steal and let them go hungry. Provide your reasons that justify either one of these positions. Critique the arguments offered by your classmates.

Week 4 Critical Thinking Quiz

Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because

All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?

Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because

Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence

The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses

People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author

Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true?

Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT:

As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.

Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair. building : blueprint

Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair. conductor : orchestra

In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.

Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.

Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.

Week 5 Final Argument Paper - Legalized Abortion

For the Final Paper, you will identify a specific claim relative to one of the topics listed before and defend it with as strong an argument as possible. These topics are presented below as questions. The best way to develop a thesis statement is to offer an answer to the question, and then state in a clear and specific sentence the basis for your answer.

1. Should homosexuals be able to marry?

2. Is racism and anti-Semitism still a problem in the United States?

3. Is factory farming cruel to animals?

4. Is anthropogenic climate change (what used to be known as "global warming") a problem that needs immediate and/or long term attention?

5. Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?

6. What, if any, limits should there be to embryonic stem cell research?

7. Should public workers be allowed to join unions and engage in collective bargaining?

8. Is the death penalty just and applied fairly?

9. Are there any legitimate restrictions on gun ownership?

10. Is it a problem if one percent of Americans possess 50% of American wealth and assets?

11. Should abortion be legal?

12. Should evolution be taught in the public schools?

13. Are science and religion in conflict?

14. Can one be moral and not believe in God?

Part One – Thesis

In this part of the paper, the thesis is to be stated clearly and specifically. It should appear no later than the end of the introduction paragraph.

Part Two – Argument This part of the paper will present the argument for the thesis. The focus should be on identifying the strongest support for the thesis. Then, present that support by constructing an argument. This argument, or set of arguments, will probably employ both deductive and inductive reasoning.

Part Three – Counter-thesis and counter-argument

In this part of the paper, the strongest objection to the thesis is presented along with an argument (probably briefer than the argument in Part Two) for that thesis.

Part Four – Response to counter-thesis

In this part of the paper, you respond to and refute the counter-argument based on evidence discussed in Part Three. This response will draw on the earlier argument in Part Two to show that the original thesis can be defended against this objection.

The paper will be evaluated in terms of the grading rubric. The clearer your presentation of the debate and the more specific you can be in that presentation, the stronger the paper will be.

The Final Paper must be six to eight pages in length (not counting the cover page or reference list). You must use at least four resources, at least one of which must provide support for your thesis and at least one of which must provide support for your counter-thesis. Two of the four required resources must be found in the Ashford Online Library. The Final Paper must be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style, and all resources must be properly cited in text as well as on the reference page. If you would like to refer to APA samples and tutorials, log into the Ashford Writing Center (located in the Learning Resources tab in the left navigation bar).

Week 5 Quiz

The sentence "P → Q" is read as

"P v Q" is best interpreted as

What is the truth value of the sentence "P v ~ P"?

If P is false, and Q is false, the truth-value of "P ↔Q" is

"Julie and Kurt got married and had a baby" is best symbolized as

"~ P v Q" is best read as

One of the disadvantages of using truth tables is

A sentence is said to be truth-functional if and only if

A conditional sentence with a false antecedent is always

In the truth table for an invalid argument,

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PHI 103(Informal Logic) Complete Class A+ Graded Course Material

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